DESCRIPTION: Funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (U01 DA017394), this project was a part of the SATHCAP (Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement program). The primary purpose of the main study was to determine the extent to which HIV infections spread through drug-related and sexual transmission behaviors. We also sought to identify the individual, network, and structural characteristics that influence the speed, extent and path of transmission. Learn more about the SATHCAP here:

OUTCOMES: Due in part to the use of respondent-driven sampling, the average participant in this study was surprisingly older (early 40’s), male, African American or Latino, unemployed and marginally housed, with a majority reporting drug use within the last 30 days. Rates of HIV infection here high. Findings from this study were used to advise development and roll-out of the HPTN 061 and 073 trials at the UCLA Vine Street Clinic. It also preceded the MASCULINE Cohort, rolling out in 2014.

1. King WD, Larkins S, Hucks-Ortiz C, Wang PC, Gorbach PM, Veniegas R, Shoptaw S. Factors Associated with HIV Viral Load in a Respondent Driven Sample in Los Angeles. AIDS Behavior. 2009 Feb;13(1):145-53. PMCID: PMC2649661

2. Gorbach PM, Murphy, R, Weiss RE, Hucks-Ortiz C, Shoptaw S. Bridging Sexual Boundaries: Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women in a Street-Based Sample in Los Angeles. Jrnl of Urban Health. 2009 July; 86 Suppl 1:63-76. PMCID: PMC2705489

3. Ober A, Shoptaw S, Wang PC, Gorbach PM, Weiss RE. Factors Associated with Event-Level Stimulant Use during Sex In a Sample of Older, Low-Income Men Who Have Sex with Men in Los Angeles. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2009 Jun 1;102(1-3):123-9. PMCID: PMC2751657

4. Shoptaw S, Weiss RE, Munjas B, Hucks-Ortiz C, Young SD, Larkins S, Victorianne GD, Gorbach PM. Homonegativity, Substance Use, Sexual Risk Behaviors, and HIV Status in Poor and Ethnic Men Who Have Sex With Men in Los Angeles. Jrnl of Urban Health. 2009 July; 86 Suppl 1:77-92. PMCID: PMC2705491

5. Young SD, Shoptaw S, Weiss RE, Munjas B, Gorbach PM. Predictors of Unrecognized HIV Infection Among Poor and Ethnic Men Who Have Sex with Men in Los Angeles. AIDS and Behavior. 2009 December 31. PMCID: PMC3029495

6. Iguchi MY, Ober AJ, Berry SH, Fain T, Heckathorn DD, Gorbach PM, Heimer R, Kozlov A, Ouellet LJ, Shoptaw S, Zule WA. Simultaneous recruitment of drug users and men who have sex with men in the United States and Russia using respondent-driven sampling: sampling methods and implications. J Urban Health. 2009 Jul;86 Suppl 1:5-31. PMCID: PMC2705484

7. Murphy RD, Gorbach PM, Weiss RE, Hucks-Ortiz C, Shoptaw SJ. Seroadaptation in a sample of very poor Los Angeles area men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav. 2013 Jun;17(5):1862-72. PMCID: PMC3479326

8. Ober AJ, Iguchi MY, Weiss RE, Gorbach PM, Heimer R, Ouellet LJ, Shoptaw S, Anglin MD, Zule WA. The relative role of perceived partner risks in promoting condom use in a three-city sample of high-risk, low-income women. AIDS Behav. 2011 Oct;15(7):1347-58.

9. Cranston RD, Murphy R, Weiss RE, Da Costa M, Palefsky J, Shoptaw S, Gorbach PM. Anal human papillomavirus infection in a street-based sample of drug using HIV-positive men. Int J STD AIDS. 2012 Mar;23(3):195-200. PMID: 22581874; PMCID: PMC3899933.

10. Shoptaw S, Stall R, Bordon J, Kao U, Cox C, Li X, Ostrow DG, Plankey MW. Cumulative exposure to stimulants and immune function outcomes among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Int J STD AIDS. 2012 Aug;23(8):576-80. PMID: 22930295; PMCID: PMC3576843.

11. Niccolai LM, Verevochkin SV, Toussova OV, White E, Barbour R, Kozlov AP, Heimer R. Estimates of HIV incidence among drug users in St. Petersburg, Russia: continued growth of a rapidly expanding epidemic. Eur J Public Health. 2011 Oct;21(5):613-9. Epub 2010 Aug 26. PMID: 20798184; PMCID: PMC3180633.

12. Mackesy-Amiti ME, McKirnan DJ, Ouellet LJ. Relationship characteristics associated with anal sex among female drug users. Sex Transm Dis. 2010 Jun;37(6):346-51. PMID: 20065891; PMCID: PMC3278856.

13. Grau LE, White E, Niccolai LM, Toussova OV, Verevochkin SV, Kozlov AP, Heimer R. HIV disclosure, condom use, and awareness of HIV infection among HIV-positive, heterosexual drug injectors in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. AIDS Behav. 2011 Jan;15(1):45-57. PMID: 20700645; PMCID: PMC3023022.

14. King WD, Minor P, Ramirez Kitchen C, Oré LE, Shoptaw S, Victorianne GD, Rust G. Racial, gender and geographic disparities of antiretroviral treatment among US Medicaid enrolees in 1998. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008 Sep;62(9):798-803. PMID: 18701730; PMCID: PMC5044867.